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xcviii Journal of the Anthropological Society.
Marshall referred, in confirmation of that opinion, to Mr. Borrow 's
work, The Gypsies in Spain, in which he described them as a distinct
people with a distinct language. That language, which is quite dif-
ferent from the Spanish, Mr. Borrow said is even spoken by the gyp-
sies in England. Mr. Marshall also referred to the paper read at a
former meeting of the Society by Mr. Hams on the Gallinas, in
which several customs of that people were mentioned that were similar
to those said by Mr. Borrow to pertain to the gypsies.
Mr. Bollaert said he had often talked with Mr. Borrow on the
subject, and that gentleman was of opinion that the gypsies in Spain
were of Asiatic origin ; but nothing was positively known of it. The
Spaniards call the language of the gypsies gerigouza and germania or
gibberish. Mr. Borrow traced some Sanskrit words in it ; and it may
be observed that wherever the gypsies settle, their language partakes
more or less of the language of the country.
Mr. C. H. Chambers thought that the gypsies of Spain came, pro-
bably, directly from Hungary, but that they might have come from
India originally. In the fifteenth century, they were spoken of as
coming from the Slavonian part of Europe. He inquired whether the
gypsies in Spain live in villages, as they do in Hungary, or whether
they live in camps 1
Dr. Seemann observed that the gypsies were to be seen in perfec-
tion in Hungary and Bohemia, where there were whole villages of
them. When they travelled, they came into towns in waggons of a
peculiar construction. They were excellent musicians ; and, though
they do not know musical notes, they will play any tune after hearing-
it once or twice.
Mr. Beavan, in replying to the remarks on his paper, observed that
the want of literature was the greatest drawback in Spain. There
were few places where books could be purchased; and in many a
large town there was only one shop where any books could be ob-
tained. The principal books the Spaniards read were French novels.
The reading of them was a favourite amusement, but of their own
authors they knew nothing whatever. With regard to the gypsies,
their language was entirely different from the Spanish, but they could
most of them speak Spanish. In Spain they did not live under hedges
nor in villages, but they lived by themselves in towns. It was their
practice to hire a small hovel, and live together in it in a miserable
way ; and then they proceeded to another town, and did the same.
They were seen in the greatest numbers in Granada, where they
gained their livelihood by playing music and exhibiting their dances,
assisted occasionally by fortune-telling.
Mr. Bollaert then read the following communication from Dr.
Hyde Clarke, — On Anthropological Investigations in Smyrna.
In accepting the local secretaryship in Smyrna, which the Council
has conferred upon me, it may be useful to report on the field of in-
vestigation in this district. It abounds, indeed, in examples of phe-
nomena connected with the prehistorical and historical period.
Monuments. Our caverns have not been investigated. Within
Clarice on Anthropological Investigations in Smyrna. xcix
the last two years, some remarkable caverns in limestone have been
found near Ephesus. I have strong reason to believe they are bone
caverns, but I have not been able to obtain any investigation. I
would strongly recommend this subject to some Fellow of the Society
travelling in these parts. A fable, extensively credited by persons
who ought to know better, and to be found in print, is, that in the
mountains where these are found is a subterranean city, of which the
entrance is near Kosboonar.
Cyclopean Cities. In these we are very rich. Within a short
distance we have Smyrna, Tantalus, Sipylus, and Negrophaeum ;
showing that in the prehistoric period large cities were thickly clus-
tered. Ephesus and Samos are fine examples. I attribute the Cy-
clopean class to the Iberian inhabitants of Southern Europe. I have
discussed the pre-Hellenic inhabitants of Asia Minor, and assigned
them to the Iberians, in a paper before the Academy of Anatolia, and
the Ethnological Society, briefly communicated to the British Associa-
tion at Bath. This portion of W. Von Humboldt's researches is well
worth}' of prosecution. A list is wanted of Cyclopcean cities.
Hock-cut Momiments. Asia Minor is rich in these, of which we
have some in this neighbourhood. The Sesostris must be taken out
of the class of Egyptian monuments. I have been for some time en-
gaged on this subject, and have succeeded in obtaining the concurrent
opinions of competent authorities, that this sculpture belongs to a
class allied to Assyrian. It is probably of still greater antiquity. I
hope soon to obtain photographs of the Sesostris, and the Niobe or
Cybele. The other monument referred to by Herodotus will, I expect,
be found on the well cliffs between Kosboonar and Ephesus. These
require close examination.
Tombs of various kinds have been found, but have not been ade-
quately investigated. No skulls have been secured. Many problems
as to race may obtain solution from such remains.
Kitclien-Middens or Shell-Mounds. None are known, but must
exist. I have pointed out the oyster-beds on Mount Pagus, the Ceedle
Hill at Smyrna, formerly supposed to be fossil, as belonging to this
class. A short description will be found in last year's Atliencmm.
This subject requires further investigation. I trust soon to send spe-
cimens to the Society.
Comparative Anthropology. At the present moment we have re-
mains of many races, and in ancient epochs they were also various.
The rajah Greeks I consider to be representatives of the Iberian and
pre-Heilemc inhabitants. The Hellenic Greeks are supposed by Fall-
merayer, Pinlay, and myself to be of Albanian and Slavonian descent,
and that the Hellenic element was extinguished many centuries ago.
The Armenians are numerous. These are a most interesting people.
It is desirable to investigate their relations to the Georgians, and how-
far the fabulous Armenian history has any real basis of truth in con-
nection with the early empires of Persia. I have been paying some
attention to this matter in connection with my researches in the
identification of the Caucasian tribes and the Tibetans, in support of
c Journal of the Anthropological Society.
Mr. B. H. Hodgson's researches. The Koords penetrate into these
provinces. The same questions arise with regard to them.
My present view is, that the Armenians, the Koords, and the
Albanians or Arnaouts, are the three earliest Indo-European races
that descended from the main seat of the family, and that the pheno-
mena of their roots and grammar are to be sought partly in Kaukaso-
I may observe, parenthetically, that I assign the same influences
as operating on the Ossetinians or Trim, and explaining its apparent
anomalies, and conciliating the discoveries of Mr. B. H. Hodgson. I
consequently doubt how far the Ossetes may be Indo-European, and
whether a Kaukaso-Tibetan race may not have accepted an Indo-
European language. The Kaukaso-Tibetan influence in Western Asia
is an element to be investigated. It is possible that it affects the
Lycian question, and the third arrow-headed. I have not been able
sufficiently to examine these points.
This country of Anatolia is the main seat of the Ottoman Turks.
The ethnological difference between the Osmanli and Turkoman is very
great, and cannot be accounted for by the hypothesis of Circassian
and Georgian intermixtures. On the question of the supposed extinc-
tion of the Osmanli, I have communicated a paper lately to the Statis-
tical Society, in which I express doubts as to the fact, and give some
evidence for showing that the supposed extraordinary increase of the
Christians is a fallacy, and that for three centuries the local Christian
and Jewish populations have been stationary.
The Turkomans, Yuruks, and other wandering and hill tribes, are
well deserving of investigation. They are called Kizzilbashes or
Shiites, like the Persians ; but their Mussulmanism is mixed up with
peculiar institutions, bearing a semblance to the modifications of Islam
in Syria. They likewise partake of that prevalent idea among Mus-
sulmans, that there is a connection between their institutions and
freemasonry. They certainly hold private periodical assemblies, to
which initiates only are admitted.
There are many Negroes here, of whom evidence may be obtained
as to Eastern and Central Africa. In the city of Aidin there is a
woman of the tribe of Nyanyas, or ' men with tails', of the Nile, on
whom I piiblished a paper in the Levant Quarterly Review, some years
ago. Mr. W. Winwood Keade, one of your Council, has given some
interesting accounts of the Nyanyas, in his book on Western Africa.
I am now endeavouring to obtain a Nyanya vocabulary from this
woman, that to be found in philological works being imperfect, and
affording no elements for ethnological classification. If I succeed in
this purpose, we shall identify the position of the Nyanyas, and perhaps
solve an inquiry raised by Mr. W. W. Reade, and by residents on the
west coast, as to the connection of the Nyanyas with that district. I
hope in time to obtain a photograph of this woman, who is a fine type
of the race. The difficulties I have had on this subject are a fair
measure of those to be encountered in this country on very simple
matters. I have now made four attempts lately to get the vocabulaiy,
without effect. M. Ernest Kenan, the eminent orientalist, who speaks
Clarke on A nthropological Investigations in Smyrna. ci
Arabic, as does the woman, willingly undertook it for me ; but, on
inquiry in Aidin, lie could not find her. It turned out afterwards, he
passed her in her usual resort on leaving the city. The same thing
happened a fortnight afterwards with another party.
Many examples of mixed races are found here, particularly of
Negro mulattoes and Levantines, or the mixture of Europeans with
the natives of the country. The latter afford some most beautiful
women in the first, and occasionally in the second, generation ; but
there is undoubted evidence that neither of the mixed races is perma-
nent. It is to be observed, that some of the Levantines pass into Greeks,
as is naturally to be expiected from a preponderant Greek population.
It is curious that, though the Levantine is a cross-breed chiefly among
Indo-Europeans, the third and fourth generations produce many of
the phenomena of Negro cross-breeds, as seen in the West Indies and
On the subject of mules, I may relate that well-informed persons
believe that many mules of the ass and cow exist in this country ; and
two cases have been named to me, which a friend is investigating.
One of these alleged cow-mules is at Leidebein, eight miles distant,
and we hope to obtain a photograph for transmission to Europe. The
mule was in the city a fortnight ago, but we did not succeed.
On the subject of the phenomenon discovered by Count Strzlecki
in Tasmania, and termed by me foaling, I have obtained further evi-
dence as to the fact reported by me to the count, namely, that in
Spain and South America, when a he-mule touches a mare, she be-
comes barren to a horse or an ass. In South America, a mule which
has done this is immediately shot, as he may render a herd of mares
barren. I have ascertained from muleteers here, that it is considered
that the contact of a mule with a mare renders her barren.
Upon hair, I may observe that light hair is much commoner
among the Armenians, who have very black hair, than among the
Greeks, with whom the black is not so intense ; I have seen negrolike
hair among the Greeks, but have not identified "with which race of
Longevity. We have one alleged case of remarkable longevity in
the Turkish quarter, of which I published a note in Notes and Queries,
and which I have not got here for reference. Generally speaking,
among the Turks there are not many cases of alleged centenarians.
Plague. The plague has ceased within the memory of persons
now living ; but there is no sufficient local cause, as many of the cities
remain in the same condition. A subject deserving of investigation,
is the occasional depopulation of villages by fever, arising, it is sup-
posed, by a derivation of currents of air, as by cutting down forests, for
instance, bringing miasma on a place formerly protected from it.
Transportation of Language. This has taken place at various
times within the historical period. The rayah Greeks generally speak
Turkish ; the Armenians are acquiring a new literary Armenian lan-
guage, displacing the Turko-Armeuian ; the Jews are abandoning
Spanish for Italian. The Italian language, formerly the general polite
language, is being displaced.
cii Journal of the Anthropological Society,
Dialects. The Levantine dialects of the European languages are
deserving of attention. The Levantine-English or Levantine twang,
about six years ago, was confined to about five hundred persons ; but
the children of the many new comers get quickly affected by it. A
child under ten years old will come under its influence in about three
months. It consists of a twang, accentuations, and idioms, in reality
based on the bad or Smyrno-Greek dialect. I may note, that I ob-
served children lost it in about two months after arrival in England.
The English in Ireland and America are commonly longer in acquir-
ing the dialect ; and adult males resist better than adult females.
The dialect of the neighbouring island of Mytlene, has been published,
and I have ascertained from natives, that there is a distinct dialect in
each village, which the people say cannot be understood by some of
the neighbours. The number of dialects in that small island is by
some reckoned at sixty.
The gypsies here may be usefully investigated. On the dialect
of the gypsies of Roumelia, Mr. Pospati of Constantinople has published
a very valuable memoir, to which I contributed some notes, in the
Levant Quarterly Revieio.
Creolism. The effect of change of climate, so remarkable in the case
of the English in North America and Australia, producing the physical
effects known as Yankeeism, but which I have termed creolism, I have
not noticed here. I have not observed that the children of European
parentage on both sides, partake of any physical change in the nature
of creolism ; but the field of observation is restricted, as the number
of pure blood is very small. In American and Australian cases, I
have known instances of the children of immigrants born in the
country, being distinguished by Yankee features from the elder child-
ren born in England. Some of the children of immigrants are not
affected by creolism, but are wholly of English type.
Such is the field for investigation, but the difficulties of compass-
ing it are great. There is no public spirit, and no zeal. The whole
number of scientific inquiries is small, and, like myself, closely en-
gaged, and having no time to devote to systematic inquiry, A small
academy we formed, under the name of the Academy of Anatolia, and
of which I was the President, has dwindled since its first year ; the
attempt to form a library has failed, after accumulating two thousand
volumes ; and the efforts for museums have proved abortive. It is
only by aid from without, from travellers or visitors, having time or
means to bestow, that results will be gradually obtained.
Thanks were voted to Dr. Hyde Clarke for this communication.
The following communication from Mr. Baines was read by Mr. C.
Carter Blake, which was accompanied by objects presented to the
Museum illustrative of the matters referred to.
On Certain Implements and Articles of Dress from South Africa. By
T. Baines, Esq.
I have much pleasure in presenting to you, as you were kind
enough to tell me the Society would value it, a spear or arrow-head of